The ORANI-G Page

ORANI-G is an applied general equilibrium model which has been applied to many countries. It is descended from the ORANI GE model of the Australian economy which was used extensively for policy analysis in Australia for nearly two decades. ORANI-G (the 'G' stands for 'generic') is a version of ORANI designed both for teaching purposes and to serve as a basis from which to construct new models. Adaptations exist for many countries, including China, Thailand, South Africa, Korea, Pakistan, Brazil, the Philippines, Japan, Ireland, Vietnam, Indonesia, Venezuela, Taiwan and Denmark. COPS runs an annual GE training course which is based around the ORANI-G model, and also offers contract research services to assist or accelerate development of similar models worldwide.

This page gives access to various ORANI-G-related materials.

Prerequisite: Access to GEMPACK software and basic GEMPACK knowledge. See here for more introductory level material.

map of world
Countries shaded red are modelled by variants of the ORANI-G model

Run ORANI-G on the web: GEMPACK 12 increased the number of GEMPACK programs that will run under Linux. This has made it easier to run GEMPACK models on the web. An ORANI-G example may be seen here, running on our (very slow) web-server.

2014 version of ORANI-G document downloadable here.

Chinese version of ORANI-G document downloadable here [thanks to Charles Xiao and others, see here and here].

2012 version of ORANI-G: incorporating various minor improvements, such as elimination of the STI file. See COPS archive item TPMH0110 here.

2 papers about ORANI-IT, an ORANI-G-style model of Italy: here and here.

2003 version of ORANI-G: as used for the 2003 GE training course in Australia. New features for this release include: documentation in PDF as well as MSWord97 DOC formats; an EXE file so you can run (but not change) the model without a GEMPACK licence; a new closure which allows both capital and labour to be fixed in aggregate yet mobile between sectors; and a number of other small improvements. See file README.TXT in the zip for more information [note: TAB file slightly updated Sep 2004]. Download 2.5 MB zip

37-commodity, 35-industry, ORANI-G database based on the Australian 2001-2 Supply-Use Tables. See COPS archive item TPMH0108 here.

ORANI-G as an input-output model: Example showing how the ORANI-G model may be very easily adapted to work as a conventional input-output model, and how to use the SAGEM program to rapidly compute matrices of standard or "Type 2" multiplier coefficents. A regional input-output calculation is also shown. GEMPACK is needed, but the Limited Executable Image version is enough. See files README.TXT and ORANIGIO.DOC in COPS archive item TPMH0082 here. Or, if you really must "invert the matrix", look here.

On the CrunGEM page you'll find a number of downloadable, ready-to-run models based on ORANI-G and on data from Australia, China, Indonesia, Philippines, Thailand, Latvia and various African countries.

PHILGEM: is a SAM-based CGE model of the Philippines, based closely on ORANI-G, but with additional code and data that allows for multiple households and a SAM-based system of income and expenditure accounts. See COPS archive item TPEC0109 here or read about it here .

DIAL-A-MODEL: The CUSTOM program can be used to create many variations of ORANI-G: you choose what features you want; it creates a TAB file for you (and usually a data file also!). Use it to create simplified models for teaching or experimentation, or to make multi-temporal or multiregional versions of ORANI-G. Download 1MB install package [updated May 2011].

EV and CV This short note tells how to add 4 lines to ORANIG03 to calculate the equivalent variation (EV). Download 7k zip

MkDiag.Tab is a GEMPACK program to transform an ORANIG03 database so that the MAKE matrix is diagonal: ie, a commodity x industry table becomes a commodity x commodity table. See COPS archive item TPMH0062 here.

Adjuster.Tab is a levels GEMPACK program which will rectify imbalances in a ORANI-G database, or can update the database to a more recent year. It comes with an explanatory document and a series of worked examples. See COPS archive item TPMH0058 here.

Multiple households versions of ORANIG03. Two versions, one with margins, one without. The regional extension has been omitted from both. Download 50k zip, then study the Readme.Txt file.

2001 version of ORANI-G: as used for the 2001 GE training course in Australia. Includes TAB, STI, and CMF files together with a 22-sector 1987 Australian database. Also a 70-page Microsoft Word 97 document describing the model in detail (designed to be printed out on A4 paper). As long as you make proper attribution, you are welcome to use and adapt all or part of this document to describe your own ORANI-G-like model.

The theory of ORANIG01 is almost the same as the previous ORANIG98 (see below) but the TAB file and documentation have been heavily revised to follow more modern practice and to be clearer. Also, the ORES multi-regional extension has been included in this version. Download 240k zip

ORANIGNM (No Margins): a simplified version of the ORANIG01 model: there are no margins and the regional extension has been omitted. Download 41k zip

1998 version of ORANI-G: as used for the 1998 GE training courses in Taipei and Australia.
Document: Download 163k zip of Word document or 372k PDF
Model: . Includes TAB, STI, and CMF files together with a 22-sector 1987 Australian database. Download 52k zip

ORANI-F: precursor to ORANI-G Download the original 1993 journal article on which the ORANI-G document was based. This older version has two unique features: it describes the ORANI-F forecasting approach (now mostly replaced by recursive-dynamic models), and includes a full interpretation of an example simulation.

The CRUSOE project extends the usefulness of ORANIG by providing for it a series of 346 databases covering different countries or world regions. These databases cover 10, 39, or 57 sectors and are drawn from Version 5.5 of the GTAP database. The same TABLO-generated model works with any of the databases.More details here.

So you want to build a GE model ! a 5-page Word document offering advice to those who want to use ORANI-G as a starting point for their own GE model (updated Jan 2022). Download 13k zip

SAMBAL is a GEMPACK program to balance an arbitrary square SAM. See COPS archive item TPMH0048.

Constructing an ORANI-G database

The CoPS Archive contains several examples of TABLO programs:

Written descriptions may be found in working papers G-226, G-234 and G-288.

Adaptations of ORANI-G:

The following models were created by using ORANI-G as a starting point, creating a new country-specific database, and extending the equation system. They are of interest because they illustrate some of the possible extensions to ORANI-G. In each case the core model and its notation are shared with ORANI-G, so they take advantage of the ORANI-G documentation. However, little additional, model-specific, documentation is provided apart from the TABLO source file. Intermediate level GEMPACK knowledge is assumed.

PRCGEM, an ORANI-G model of China: a 33-sector, 30-region version of the full 118-sector PRCGEM. Includes many additions to ORANI-G, such as multiple households, a tops-down (ORES) regional disaggregation, and a version of the MONASH recursive-dynamic forecasting apparatus. Download 69k zip

PEKGEM, an ORANI-G model of South Africa: a simplified, 24-sector version of the full 103-sector IDCGEM model. Includes multiple households and a SAM-based system of income and expenditure accounts. Download 59k zip

SCALE, an ORANI-G model of Australia with increasing returns to scale and imperfect competition: a kit intended as a starting-point for further experimentation: Download 54k zip
The kit contains all files needed to replicate the experiments in 2 similar papers by Kaladura Abayasiri-Silva and Mark Horridge:
OP-84: Economies of Scale and Imperfect Competition in an Applied General Equilibrium Model of the Australian Economy (Available electronically)
OP-91: The Effects of Current Fiscal Restraint on the Australian Economy: an Applied General Equilibrium Analysis with Imperfect Competition. (Available electronically)
You will need to download the above 2 papers, plus the main ORANI-G document mentioned at the top of this page, in order to understand the SCALE model.

ORANIG-RD shows how a few equations may be added to ORANIG to produce a Recursive Dynamic (forecasting) model much like a simplified version of the MONASH model. Maybe you could use this as a starting point to construct your own, more complex, dynamic model. Zip includes TAB, HAR and DOC files, sufficient to rebuild model. Assumes more advanced knowledge. Download 64k zip
Running dynamic simulations is immensely simplified by using the Windows shell program RunDynam. A free demonstration version of this program, which uses ORANIGRD as an example, can be located from this page.

ORANIG-FR an improved version of the "top-down" regional extension to ORANI-G. The original ORES regional extension to ORANI, described in DPSV, is rather restrictive. We have gradually modified it. This latest version incorporates 3 advances:

With an example Australian database and a descriptive document [in both Portuguese and English] by Joaquim Bento de Souza Ferreira-Filho of the Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz, Universidade de São Paulo, Piracicaba, São Paulo State, Brazil. Assumes more advanced knowledge. Download 100k zip

INDOCEEM is a CGE model of the Indonesian economy designed especially for analysing energy-related issues but useful also for analyzing other policy issues. Its equations are similar to the ORANIG01 model, with some fuel-related additions (such as within-fuels and fuel/primary factor substitution). It includes a top-down regional extension, distinguishing 26 provinces. Data for 2000 (HAR) and source code (TAB) files are supplied (see COPS archive item TPMH0032 here).

WAYANG is a model of Indonesia constructed by Glyn Wittwer and others for the Centre for International Economic Studies. Based closely on ORANI-G, WAYANG adds an innovative treatment of agricultural technology, a 'tops-down' regional extension, multiple households, and a small budgetary extension. Using the original ORANI-G document as a template, Glyn has documented all features of WAYANG. His document, together with source code and data for WAYANG are available: Download 179k zip
INDORANI (see below) is a similar but more elaborate model of Indonesia.

Yet another model of Indonesia, this time with 2003 data, available here.

Congo CGE model: Several papers describing the ORANI-G-based DRCFIM [Democratic Republic of Congo Formal-Informal Model] by Erero, Pambudi and Bonga-Bonga are listed here.

VURM is a full "bottoms-up" multiregional model with similar structure and notation to ORANI-G, used to model different regions within Australia. Details and source code for this model are available, from the VURM/MMRF page.

Contact points for single-country models based on ORANI-G

UPGEM model of South Africa Professor Jan van Heerden University of Pretoria

IDCGEM model of South Africa Rian Coetzee Industrial Development Corporation of South Africa

PRCGEM model of Peoples Republic of China Professor Zheng Yuxin or Fan Ming-Tai Academy of Social Sciences

TAIGEM model of Taiwan Professor Shih-Hsun Hsu National Taiwan University

Denmark AGE model Soren Frandsen

Two separately developed models of Brazil: contact Joaquim Bento Souza Ferreira
or Allexandro Coehlo.

VIET model of Vietnam Thiep Van Ho Monash University

GE-PAK model of Pakistan Dr. Farzana Naqvi

JPN-AGE model of Japan Mantaro MATSUYA Economic Planning Agency, Tokyo

Another model of Japan Shuji Kasajima Hokkai Gakuen University, Sapporo. See COPS archive item TPMH0045.

FRIGEM dynamic (multiperiod) model of Japan Hiroshi Hamasaki Fujitsu Research Institute.

Malaysia model: Vijay Kanapathy Institute of Strategic and International Studies

Phillippines model Louie Mendoza Philippines Tariff Commission

INDOTERM Indonesian model: contact Prof. Armida Alisjahbana at CEDS, UNPAD, Bandung

AGE-KOREA model of KOREA Professor Moon Kyungsung University, Pusan

IMAGE: the Irish Model of Agriculture (General Equilibrium).

Complaints and suggestions to

Go to
MINIMAL page teaching materials based around the simplified MINIMAL model.
GEMPACK helper programs latest versions ViewHAR, TABmate, etc.
Links to other models and programs by Mark Horridge
CoPS Home Page